The Complete Distiller by Ambrose Cooper (1757)


Wormwood Water

Wormwood Water

There are similar references in Culpeper’s ‘The Complete Herbal’, 1653 as Spiritus et Aqua Absynthii & most importantly Spiritus et Aqua Absynthii magis composita.

Spiritus et Aqua Absynthii magis composita
Or spirit and water of Wormwood, the greater composition

College : Take of common and Roman Wormwood, of each a pound; Sage, Mints, Bawm, of each two handfuls; the Roots of Galanga, Ginger, Calamus, Aromaticus, Elecampane, of each three drachms; Liquorice, an ounce, Raisins of the Sun stoned, three ounces, Annis seeds, and sweet Fennel seeds, of each three drachms; Cinnamon, Cloves, Nutmegs, of each two drachms; Cardamoms, Cubebs, of each one drachm: let the things be cut that are to be cut, and the things be bruised that are to be bruised, all of them infused in twenty four pints of Spanish wine, for twenty four hours, then, distilled in an Alembick, adding two ounces of white sugar to every pint of distilled water.

According to researchers at the University of Wolverhampton discussing another section:

“Culpeper, in a rather involved sentence, seems to suggest that two varieties of WORMWOOD were most commonly used; that is, SEA WORMWOOD for children and ‘people of ripe age’, and ‘common wormwood’ for those that are ’strong’, by which he probably meant the plant now usually called Artemesia absinthe [Culpeper (1653, new ed. n.d.)].

Culpeper also says: “Common Wormwood I shall not describe, for every boy that can eat an egg knows it” So the question is : what was this “common wormwood” that Culpeper mentions?

Would it be fair to say this recipe contains the Holy Trinity, which is used by some to define modern day absinthe:  artemisia absinthium, fennel and anise? Is this then evidence of absinthe – only the French word for wormwood anyway – existing as part of a much older tradition?

Is the dubious history of the Henroid sisters, and the bogus Dr Ordinaire, merely a 19th Century marketing stunt? In any case neither the Henroid sisters, nor the phantom Doctor, invented absinthe – at best it was copied.

46 responses to “The Complete Distiller by Ambrose Cooper (1757)

  1. Looking in A Modern Herbal (M. Grieves, 1931) again, I see Sea Wormwood listed as Artemisia cina (BERG.) The first name given is Levant Wormseed, with synonyms in descending order: Sea Wormwood, Santonica, Semen Sanctum, Semen Cinae, Semen Contra, Semen Santonici, Artemesia Lercheana, Artemisia maritima, var. Stechmanniana, Artemisia maritima, var. paucifloria, Artemesia Chamaemelifolia. The part used is listed as seeds. In any event, this particular species or group of cultivars appear to hail from Siberia, Turkestan and Chinese Mongolia. The chief constituent is Santonin, an anthelmintic (vermifuge or anti-worm). It also contains Artemisin, and a yellow volatile oil consisting of Cineol, to which its odour is due.

    An early modern reference is found in Brunfels’ 1531 Herbal, mentioning wormseed as being imported by way of Genoa, being employed in Italy under the name of Semenzine (diminutive of semenza, or seed, in Italian.

    Beware! Grieves says that several cases are on record of fatal poisoning by Santonin. But hey, check this out: “Even small doses of Santonin will produce remarkable effects on the vision, appreciation of colour being so disturbed that objects appear to have a yellowish tinge, which is sometimes preceded by a faint colour. Santonin may also cause headache, nausea and vomiting, and in large doses, epileptiform convulsions.”

    Of the 176 Recipe and the Spiritus et Aqua Absynthii magis composita recipe, I find kindred spirits in these predecessors, for I too am using many of these herbs and spices in my favorite absinthe recipe. After enjoying bottles of Henri Bardouin Pastis, which contain said herbs and spices. I began to develop a recipe to approximate that rich and savory mouth feel. I’m glad to know that I’m following in the footsteps of excellent distillers of ages past.

  2. Hi Scotty!

    piołunówka: Found a modern book with some details – basic info about the ageing. Also, we had a blog visitor from Poland who knows the full story – need to organise a post.

    I’m following in the footsteps of excellent distillers of ages past.

    Alchemists too! – AQUA CELESTIS (Heavenly Water) 🙂

  3. It would be fantastic to get some piolunowka info “from the horse’s mouth” a.k.a. your visitor from Poland. I found the recipe online that every other reference seems to come from, but I wanted to compare it to other recipes before making it. I found a recipe in Polish that the online translation software couldn’t do a thing with. I contacted a Polish-American society and sent them the recipe asking for help and they didn’t reply. Then life carried me onward and the piolunowka project went to the back burner. But…maybe a trans-continental collaboration is in order. We all make the same recipe and compare notes as we make the juice and taste it through the aging process.

    Here is the URL where I got the recipe and the recipe itself:

    Absynt (polska piolunowka)

    0. 0,5 litra wodki
    0. 2 lyzki suszonego piolunu
    0. 2 lyzki anyzu calego
    0. 1/2 lyzki nasion kopru
    0. 4 cardamony
    0. 1 lyzki majeranku
    0. 1/2 lyzki mielonej kolendry
    0. 2 lyzki siekanego korzenia arcydzieglu
    0. 1 2/3 filizanki syropu z cukru (zagotuj cukier z woda pol na pol i odparuj)

    Przelej wodke do duzego sloja ze szczelna pokrywka. Dodaj piolun i wstrzasnij; mocz przez 48 godzin i przecedz. Rozetrzyj cale przyprawy w mozdzierzu. Dodaj wszystkie ziola do wodki i mocz w cieplym miejscu przez tydzien. przecedz i doslodz syropem.

  4. There exist two legitimite piołunówka recipes, the one quotes here has nothing to with the genuine and is unfortunately the result of absinthe craze (asumming the first recipe for piołunówka was mentioned in S.Falimierz’ “O paleniu wódek z ziół” from 1534, it is much older than absinthe itself).

    I have posted that recipe at Wikipedia, piołunówka entry and so far it is there.

    I have not tried the recipe yet, but it seems to be the closest. In that case it can made with/wothout distillation.

    From the 80’s I have another recipe, here sugar is replaced with caramel, and the whole product is an assemblage of clear distillate and wormwood macerate (20ml per 2 litres of distillate, the final result being 45% vol). You can get very good piołunówka in Poland sold in “Nalewki-i-inne” shops (so not that widely available). It is nicely bitter, however too sugared and has a nice tinge (probably an assemblage as well).

    Only advice I can give: take Falimierz recipe, follow the instructions I have translated so that they would sound more modern and have fun.

  5. If indeed Culpepper’s recipe appears as you have it above, then I would say that it does indeed include the sacred ‘holy trinity’, or as I prefer to call them the lucky ‘trifecta’ of herbs and spices, known as wormwood (A. absinthium), fennel and anise. Wormwood had a very long history in Europe by Culpepper’s time and there is no reason to believe that some other species was being used under the name common wormwood.

    As far as any moves by EU Authentic Tastes people to gain legal status in the Franco-Suisse region to legally secure the name ‘absinthe’ for themselves, it would be foolish.

  6. This distilled “water of wormwoode” was mixed with elderberry syrup, perhaps to counter the bitterness, and used as a medicine.

    The interesting question is where did Culpeper get it from? Alchemist texts?

  7. Looks like what we were after:

    To make a speciall Aqua coposita to Drincke for a Surfett or cold Stomacke

    Ffyrst take a handfull of Rosemarye & a good roote of elena campana / a handfull of Isope / halfe a handfull of t[…] diver handfull of sage / a handfull of Red fenelle / vi croppes of red mynte & as manye of penye royall / Diver handfull of worme woode . vj croppes of magerome / ij oz of lycoras well bruised & as muche Anesedes then take iij gallons of good & mightye Ale and take all the forsaide herbes and Aleto gether & put them in a brasse pott & sett them on the fyre & let them stand tyll they begin to boyle & then take them from the fyre and sett your lymbecke upon yt and stopp yt mst wth past that no ayre come out & so kepe yt fyrst wth a softe fyre & as of the ayre of Aqua vite

    The commonplace book of Countess Katherine Seymour Hertford (1567)


  8. Absinthist, thanks for the tips. Out of curiousity, I wonder, could you tell us why the recipe posted is not genuine, or better, translate it for us. Much appreciated!

    Absintheur, this book of Countess Katherine is cool. Nice find. I think I might drink ‘iij gallons of good & mightye Ale’ tonite.

    Funny though, every day I still see printed that the Franco-Suisse region is the birthplace of absinthe. Talk about myths dying hard!


  9. There you go:

    0,5 litre of vodka (Falimierz’ and other nalewkas’ recipes call for rectified spirit, vodka is ok but shall be at 50% at minimum)

    2 tablespoons of wormwood (not specified which parts of the plant and far too much for just 0.5 litre)

    2 tablespoons of aniseed (there never was, is, and shall be aniseed in piołunówka as in Poland we have two anise -flavoured spirits of their own: Dubelt Annis, Kontuszówka (the bottle of it can be seen in Svejk movie with R. Hrusinsky):)

    1/2 tablesppon of fennel
    4 cardamom seeds
    1 tablespoon of marjoram
    1/2 tablespoon of ground coriander
    2 tablespoons of cut angelica root
    2/3 of sugar syrup

    Macerate wormwood for 48h, strain, add rest of ingredients to the alcoholate, macerate for 14 days, add sugar syrup.

    The result of it would be some bitters, probably over-sugared and needed to be filtered, not piołunówka.

    The problem with the recipe, another excluding the aforementioned comments, would be like one starts giving gin-recipe as the only one for jałowcówka (you have it under the name of borovicka AFAIK-really great stuff).

    All these, so piołunówka, jałowcówka, anyżówka, kardamonówka et al are characterized by one base ingredient and varying amounts of spirit, water, sometimes sugar.
    Hope I have helped.

  10. I love reading shoptalk like this! If only I had a lymbecke and a softe fyre…

    “Franco-Suisse region is the birthplace of absinthe.”

    Correction: It’s not the birthplace of absinthe. It’s the birthplace of Real Absinthe™. hehe

  11. Among the rooms on that floor,was one called the still-room; an apartment where the ladies of old much amused themselves in distilling waters and coridals, as well for the use of themselves and of their poor neighbours, as for several purposes of cookery. In this room stood a death’s-head: no improper emblem of the effects of the operations carried on within it.

    An account of a country house (Hawsted Place, Suffolk) visited by Queen Elizabeth 1 circa 1578 – published 1823.

    The virtuose boke of distyllacyopn of the watrs of all maner of herbes..Michael Puff von Schrick (1478) might also have some information. There is a cute picture of an old lady at her fire with alembic and herbs.

  12. “Would it be fair to say this recipe contains the Holy Trinity, which is used by some to define modern day absinthe: artemisia absinthium, fennel and anise? Is this then evidence of absinthe – only the French word for wormwood anyway – existing as part of a much older tradition?

    Is the dubious history of the Henroid sisters, and the bogus Dr Ordinaire, merely a 19th Century marketing stunt? In any case neither the Henroid sisters, nor the phantom Doctor, invented absinthe – at best it was copied.”

    Probably. We over at the Wormwood Society never really bought into the whole Dr. Ordinaire thing.

    I have a recipe from 1705 that Cooper snagged it from:

    But thanks, this sure demonstrates a long history of anise, fennel and wormwood as primary ingredients. Even long before the medicine became the drink we all refer to as absinthe.

  13. Even long before the medicine became the drink we all refer to as absinthe.

    Si je n’avais trouvé notre petit Livry tout à propos, j’aurais été malade. J’avalai là tout doucement mon absinthe ; M. de Pomponne et sa famille, et Mme de Vins, font tout de même.

    This letter was written in 1679 – the lady when making making reference to “my absinthe” was probably speaking of a well known product purchased from an apothecary. Absinthe was (and is) a medicine that went mass market, thanks to historical use by the troops, and then cunning marketing. The suspect history of Ordinaire and the Henroids is connected to the latter in my opinion.

    Which source from 1705 do you have, please?

    On another matter: I have discovered some advertisements which appear to be for a a kind of absinthe concentrate that was sold in the 1930s. It looks to me that they were sold to cocktail bars, who then mixed them with rectified spirit and served. I know that Hiram is a cocktail expert, and I wondered if this was ever heard of before?

  14. Oh well never mind, perhaps he has better things to do with his time 😛

  15. Here is the recipe from 1808 for wormwood liquor (piołunkowy likwor) that might be interesting to the discussion:

    18 handfuls of wormwood
    38 g of cinnamon
    half a litre of juniper berries
    12,5 g of angelica root
    3,2 g of mace
    same amount of aniseed
    6,4 g of saffron
    8 cloves
    Macerate in five litres of spirit at 70-80% for 16 days (quite long), add 4 litres of water, distill. To the distillate, add 250 ml of orange water and sugar syrup made of 225 g of sugar and 4 litres of water.

    Below was the recipe for the aforementioned orange water:
    Take 1,8 kg of orange flowers, macerate for 24 hours in water, distill gently on little fire. Stop distilling after first 5 litres had dropped.

  16. Hello Absinthist

    Some months back I had the opportunity to meet an academic who I started to quiz about wormwood. He told me that absinthe originated in the country now known as Poland – what evidence is there for this? He said it was well known, but I wondered if he was just a bit drunk, as he also said to “learn to use the library” and started on about how whiskey distillers used wormwood seeds and other peculiar bits of information.

    Are Culpeper and Countess Hertford based upon some well known source that you know? I mean they must have AA, anise and fennel – where can this be found?

  17. Quite a meeting, hehe.

    If by “absinthe” he meant Tinctura Absinthii or even piołunówka, then I would agree but would be far from agreeing apart from wormwood, there were anethole buddies, or colour buddies (melissa, hyssop, veronica, or mint).

    The latter are not mentioned in recipes. However, the recipe for “Anizetta” (45%) requires fennel, both anises and coriander.

    Apart from Falimierz’ s work from 1534, there is another from 1614, and “De herbarum virtutibus cum expositione terminorum auctore Simone a Łowicz” from 1532, preceding the aforementioned protocols, if there is also opus magnus by St.Hildegard from 11th /12th CE where wormwood vodka is mentioned as well.

    In 16th CE all such concoctions were drunk after meals, including Dubelt Annis, piołunówka, persico, ratafia, etc. If anyone ever mixed them, that I am not aware of.

    Also, the strength of these waters ( more or less 50% if I understand correctly) would be no that high as of herbal elixirs of the heyday that might have had in a sense influence on the first extraits d’absinthe sold as a medicine, not an aperitif.

    Getting to whiskey, Jack Daniel used to sip his product with a crushed tansy leaf, whereas in 1854 , in Lwów, Romuald Piotrowki wrote a book devoted to making a spirit known today as bourbon. The protocols were giving a very detailed recipe for making 9 litres of product at 67%. If there were no commercial spirits of that kind sold in Poland, we prefer rye or wheat.

  18. I have searched more and found out that under King Jan Olbracht (1459-1501) , piołunówka and anyżówka were made,well-known, and widely consumed by the gentry and peasants.

    If we consider mixing them 1:2, or 1:1, that would have all the characteristics of crude absinthe, though only two ingredients, the whole product would be pale green and without complexity but far better than absinthe ordinaire (if such an assemblage (piołunówka + anyżówka) would be created, there would be no further dilution with water as in case of ordinaire-1:5 (ratio of distillate to watered alcohol) and could be at least 50%, if home-made even stronger at up to 70%.

    We were very friendly country back then and so we are now, so no wonder all the protocols created here might influence other nations; foreign visitors were usually bringing several of bottles as well from Poland, so it must have been spreading. For instance, even Ukrainians claim they have learned how to make vodka from us.

    All in all, a very crude version of absinthe that definitely preceded extrait d’absinthe (just as piołunówka alone did) might have existed in our part of Europe; even Anisette de Bordeaux appeared in 1755, when we have known of Dubelt Annis and Anizetta long before.

    However, in that particular case, we may talk about simultaneous invention of the given recipe, same as it is with vodka, where at least four countries are considered to be the country where it had originated.

  19. So is this site now censoring comments? I have seen commments by myself, B, Brookes, and Pan Buh deleted today.

    This from a site that apparently abhors censorship!

    What is going on?

    Mod: This is what is not “going on” any longer on this thread. Thanks for your understanding and cooperation.

  20. Absinthist, the modern book I have in Czech is by Andrzej Sarwa – a quick look revealed something about sealing the containers with wax and putting them in the cellar. I haven’t got it handy, but that is what I recall. I guess it is a Czech translation? Scotty said before he was going to put oak chips in his soak : they age pelinkovac in oak casks I think?

    Someone also sent me some scans of an antique manual (herbal doctor) which I am trying to translate. This one is a Czech original (circa 1890) and contains a recipe for absinthe liquor. I am after buying the book to see what else it contains.

  21. I believe you may mean that: Velká kniha o domácí výrobě lihových nápojů, Liberec 2007, the same book was released in Poland in 2005. Just a compilation of all the possible Polish nalewkas, quite informative, though.

    Unlike other nalewkas, piołunówka is not aged and aging per se in that particular case is not required; definitely I would abstain from putting oak chips, better get a real oak cask.

    How long is it going to be aged, then? What is the initial strength?

    Pelinkovac is not cup of acorn coffee, so I do not know what are doing with it, someone from Croatia, etc would know for sure-I have not found nothing special, apart from weak alcohol range: 21%-35%.

  22. Definitely, I have to find that pelinkovac to check what it is-once it was available here sold in miniature bottles but I have simply overlooked it.

    When others say: “It is not my cup of tea”, absinthist says: “It’s not my cup of acorn coffee”, old story dealing with a type of caffeine-free coffee drink made since 17th CE in noble manors as coffee substitute flavoured with cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, revived recently by one Polish company “Dary natury”

    Quite a drinking challenge, but something different.

  23. Can you share details of the “antique manual (herbal doctor)” treatise? Maybe I can help with a translation or finding a copy.

  24. Hi Pan Bůh,

    Thanks – I’ll get the scans uploaded when I can work out how to format them for this blog.

    What about the info on Did you ever read that?

    1933 Svatba v absint baru…sounds fun 🙂

  25. Absinthist,


    In the old days Coca Cola ™ was only enjoyed at Christmas as a treat…now we see the Czech Kofola back everywhere! and also “traditional” Czech crisps, which are much better than their US counterparts. The Czech potato is king!

    Kofola is sweeter than Coca Cola…how times change. Pan Bůh, do you remember having Cola with your carp? We make carp fish cakes as a nod to that rotten tradition as a starter only – main course is meat.

  26. Coca-Cola was always the last thing I would sip or mix with spirit, but as Kofola seems to contain no ortophosphoric acid, is a good move.

    During my recent holidays, in Slovakia I have seen it served everywhere. In fact, now I have cut on coffee consumption, but being in Slovakia next time, shall grab a bottle or two.

    What I liked from effervescent soft drinks was Rajec mineral water.

  27. “…an academic who I started to quiz about wormwood. He told me that absinthe originated in the country now known as Poland.”

    Can you elucidate further who this academic was? Or at least why you would credit him as such. Or maybe, at the very least, which hospoda you were drinking with him at. Just so I can weigh how anecdotal the comment is.

    Also, how about the data on the book while we wait for the scans?

  28. Oh, and since you brought up Oliva, do you think it’s just business rivalry that they would post a comment on their web site such as this:

    “Absinthe from the Czech Republic has a well deserved terrible reputation.”

    You seem to spend a lot of time here refuting this notion. Not very helpful, are they?

  29. Oh my..I was only interested in the original documents in Czech, I do not really give a hoot about that sentence…I wonder why you have brought it up?

    I really hope that you are not going to start trying to create discord here for the amusement of the schoolyard bullies over at WS.

  30. You don’t “give a hoot” when a Czech makes a negative blanket statement about the quality of Czech absinth but would hold other nationals to a higher standard? Is that fair?

  31. He’s Czech is he? You change your hymn sheet when seeking to score points over us mortals, don’t you?

    When you posted before on my humble blog as “Tewl” you challenged Oliva about that:

    Are you sure you haven’t set up your manufacturing base in the Czech Republic because overhead costs are lower? (Yes, Novak is a good Czech name. Elliot isn’t though.)

    The website is owned by one Jan Huss – have you ever heard of him, Lord.

    I also owe you an apology “Pánbůh”…I didn’t realise you had been elevated to godhead. I suppose hanging around on WS, where people have the audacity to title themselves “Hiram”, might have caused you to develop a messianic complex.

    Perhaps if you don’t want to contribute anything but trouble here you could find somewhere else for your “work” on this earthly plain – or ascend in a cloud of glory upwards.

    Note: Pan Bůh (Mr God) Pán Bůh or actually Pánbůh (Lord God)

    Gloria in Excelsis Bůh…one last chance, help with the translation of the original writings on the Oliva page and cut the cute remarks….and we’ll get along dandy, Lord. 8)

    I am waiting…

  32. I’m curious about the wedding in an absinth bar, but I have no idea where the link to that specific info is. Does your request indicate that you’re one of those Prague ex-pats that has problems with the Czech language? Most do, in my experience. It’s a very difficult language for English speakers to learn.

  33. Emil Vachek – it is a trashy novel from the 1930s. If you can find it, please let me know. The cover of the book might be interesting as well.

    The Oliva diary papers are written in the old way as you can see very well – and I just sought your help. My humble requests have been met so far with thunderbolts …..can you just take a look and be nice now 🙂

    Show more New Testament compassion and less Old Testament wrath, Lord I beseech you.

  34. “I suppose hanging around on WS, where people have the audacity to title themselves “Hiram”, might have caused you to develop a messianic complex.”

    I take it you didn’t read enough of the WS forums to find out WHY he gave himself that forum name?

    For me, it’s pretty simple to assume that I like (or used to like) Shabba Ranks. And you’d be right. 🙂 I used to listen to him quite a lot in my younger days.

  35. It is a Hiram Abiff reference?

    Why does Mr Stein use this name then? It sounded a little grandiose / irreverent to my ear – but then Absintheur is a bit square, I suppose.

    Wonder why Pánbůh uses that name – funny – I might start calling myself Beelzebub to keep up with the fashion…or perhpas you can suggest another for me, Shabba?

    Welcome back by the way – let bygones be bygones.

  36. “Bůh” actually carries a reflection of my real life name. Besides, as you’ve seen, I’m a pompous, pridefull blowhard. Guess that’s why folks are always commenting, “Oh, gawd” when I’m around.

    Have you bothered to stop over at the Oliva offices for a clearer reproduction, if not a sort of horse’s mouth translation?

  37. “It is a Hiram Abiff reference?”

    Yes. But he did it because he’s a tenured Mason. A Past Master.

    A Lodge has a hierarchical line of officers: Junior Steward> Senior Steward> Junior Deacon> Senior Deacon> Junior Warden> Senior Warden> Worshipful Master> Past Master

    He didn’t do it because he has a ‘god complex’. He chose it because it’s something that is close to him.

  38. You know, Masons are fine and all, but I’m more of an Odd Fellow man, myself.

  39. Here’s something for you Shabba:

    “This alcohol is so strong that it is actually illegal in the United States”

    “Wormwood contains a chemical that is similar to the chemical in marijuana”

    “It was a typical to see multiple men and women sipping lime green colored cocktails and dancing lewdly any night at the Moulin Rouge. Absinthe and the club scene went hand-in-hand due to the drinks euphoric effects”

    Lewd dancing 🙂 and all high as a kite on wormwood!

  40. That was a pretty re-donkulous article, full of mistakes and wrong info.

    As we all know, absinthe’s alcohol content has nothing to do with the ban.

    Everclear is a grain alcohol available for purchase at strengths of 75.5% and 95%, and even Bacardi has a rum that is 75.5%.

    And I hope you’re joking with the comments she made about wormwood! 😉

    She needs some absinthe schooling.

  41. She needs some absinthe schooling.

    Ari should teach her a lesson perhaps?

    This milky green beverage should step up and rightfully take its place as one of the seven wonders of the world. Indeed, partaking of this beverage amongst the Hanging Gardens of Babylon’s rivers, temples and statues would be very inspiring I imagine.

    Anyone fancy a trip to Babylon? Very agreeable at this time of year…nice and quiet.

  42. Where is my recent post with a pic?

  43. I have made piołunówka 39.6%, rye-base, no sugar, assemblage of distillate and macerate. Wormwoody to the boot, pleasant herbal aroma, delicate bitterness, medium alcohol bite.

    The main difference between it and Falimierz’ s recipe: no sugar, leaves instead of flowertops, slightly less strong. All in all, I am satisfied.


    Hopefully, the pic is visible that time?

  44. Sorry. I do not think anyone can post pictures in threads. If you wish I can publish them as a new post – as they are somewhat hidden down here in the cellar 🙂

    Let me know if you would like that…I’ll also make sure it keeps on topic.

  45. If you could, post these I have sent you awhile ago. And the information-choose what is the most important, because it seems there is a double post as well.

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